We performed a post hoc analysis of the SPS3 Study. On the other hand, there are many pitfalls in using post hoc determined endpoints. This paper starts with the overview of Post-Hoc and Multiple Comparison test and discusses the various Post-hoc multiple comparison tests, its usability, positives and limitations. This difference may seem small but it has a large effect when conclusions are made from post-hoc analyses instead of pre-hoc analyses. This short review is meant to allow readers to appreciate post hoc analysis not as an entity with a single approach, but rather as an analysis with unique limitations and strengths that … The paper also provides the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and R Statistical Package codes to carry out the various Post-hoc and multiple comparison tests. Post hoc (“after this” in Latin) tests are used to uncover specific differences between three or more group means when an analysis of variance (ANOVA) F test is significant. Perhaps the most common statistic to be tested is the sample mean in experiments involving three or more means. Because the F test is “omnibus,” it will merely indicate to researchers that a difference does exist between the groups, but not between which groups specifically. The SPS3 Study was a randomized, multinational, multicenter, two by two factorial trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two double-blinded antiplatelet regimens and two systolic BP targets (open label) in preventing recurrent stroke among persons with recent lacunar stroke. Post hoc tests are conservative - they reduce the chance of Type I errors by GREATLY increasing the chance of Type II errors. The major answer to this question is that pre-hoc analyses allows for testing of a specific hypothesis while post-hoc analysis fits a hypothesis to an observed result. Post hoc analysis applies to tests of differences among sample statistics when the specific hypothesis to be tested has been suggested by the values of the statistics themselves. It is used often as a post hoc test whenever a significant difference between three or more sample means has been revealed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) Cite 3 Recommendations Study Design. - Only very robust effects will be significant - Null results using these tests aren't easy to interpret - Many different post hoc tests exist, have different merits and problems

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