A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. We consider the BD field as a perfect fluid with the energy density and pressure in the Jordan frame.

quantities are inter-related (i.e., the equations of state are "dimensionless"). Fred Hoyle was one of the three founders of the steady state cosmology, in which the universe expanded constantly, but still with an infinite past. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology. In this work we investigate how the present accelerating phase is realized in the scalar-tensor theory (BD cosmology). On March 28, 1947, he spoke on BBC Radio's "Third Program," where he described the initial singularity of the competing view as supposing the origin of the universe in a "big bang." equation of state: the ratio of the pressure to the energy density in the dark energy or vacuum energy. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy's equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. It is noted that this class includes as spe cial cases all the most commonly considered equations of state. Most famous for contributions to cosmology First person to mathematically predict an expanding universe (1922) Derived from Einstein's general relativity Einstein initially dismissed Friedmann’s equations as nothing more that a mathematical “curiosity” Developed his equation based on an isotropic and homogenous universe

If we now insert Eq. Equations of State in the Brans-Dicke cosmology Hyung W on Lee, ∗ Kyoung Y ee Kim, † and Y un Soo Myung ‡ Institute of Basic Science and Scho ol of Computer Aided Scienc e, They tell us the universe is accelerating and an extrapolation describes a state in the past where the universe was given … erywhere. In cosmology the assumption is usually made that there is a unique pressure associated with each density, so that p p(ˆ). 3.3.1 Maximal entropy state, thermal spectrum, conservation laws and chemical potentials 75 3.3.2 Energy density, pressure and the equation of state 79 3.3.3 Calculating integrals 82 3.3.4 Ultra-relativistic particles 85 3.3.5 Nonrelativistic particles 88 3.4 Lepton era 89 3.4.1 Chemical potentials 92 Usually denoted by w. For the cosmological constant w = -1. escape velocity: the minimum velocity that will allow an object to escape from a gravitational field. Introducing the power-law potential (54) and the interaction with the CDM, we confirmed the appearance of phantom divide by using the native and effective equation of state. Such a relationship is known as the equation of state. (4.8) into the Einstein Equations (3.39),thenweobtain,after some tedious algebra, two equations: ’a˙ a (2 = 8πG 3 ρ − Kc2 a2 + Λ 3 (4.9) a¨ a = − 4πG 3) ρ+ 3p c2 * + Λ 3 (4.10) where the ﬁrst equation is from the 00 component of the Einstein equations and the second is from the ii component. The equations don’t explicitly involve a dark energy or a cosmological constant term, but they describe the present visible universe very well.

Because the field is dynamical, the equation of state is constantly changing and so it is not a good approximation to model the field by taking some particular negative equation of state w 0. This procedure amounts to introducing a new ap proach for dealing with equations of state in cosmology, an

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